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Frequently Asked Questions: Home

Answers to some of the most commonly asked questions

What is plagiarism?

It's the act of passing off someone else's work as your own, as when you do a quick cut and paste from a web site into your own document, and neglect to give attribution to your sources. Plain and simple, it's a form of theft or cheating, and according to our Code of Conduct for Learners, plagiarism is an offence for which a student can be disciplined or exited from his or her program.

But it doesn't have to happen. To avoid charges of plagiarism, simply learn to document ("cite") your sources. Your learning manager may prescribe a particular style guide that sets out the "how-to" rules, or you may choose one that suits you and your subject area.

How do I write citations and bibliographies in APA Style (6th Edition)?

NEW! Check out these APA formating videos

How to Format Your Paper in APA Style

Referencing Sources in APA Style: A Basic Introduction,

How to Reference Journal Articles 

How to Reference Multiple Authors in APA.

How to Reference a Citation Within a Citation in APA Style

How to Reference Newspaper Newsletter and Magazine Articles

How to Reference eBooks

How to Reference Books

How to Reference Websites

How to Reference Canadian Government Documents 

This content was created by Crystal Rose, Public Services Librarian, Memorial University Libraries, in partnership with the university's department of Distance Education, Learning
& Teaching Support.

Here are some other helpful YouTube videos:

How do I cite an article from a database using the APA format?

In your References follow this format.

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), page numbers

Example

Ruggless, R. (2008, May 19). Culinary Trails campaign aims to lead tourists back to Louisiana. Nation's Restaurant News, 42(20), 64-64. 

 
If you search for your article through the library website, then you can get the article citation from the "cite" link in the search results. You might have to ensure that the capilization is correct in the title according to APA.

If you paraphrased the work your in-text citation could be something like:

(Ruggless, 2008)

or

According to Ruggless (2008) ....

If are directly quoting something out of the work, then your in-text citation would also include the page number (or paragraph number) of the quotation and would look  something like:

(Ruggless, 2008, p. 64)

How do I cite an article from a print journal using the APA format?

In your References follow this format.

Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), page numbers.

Example

Chadwick, C. & Valenzuela, S. (2008, July-August). Culture, change, and educational improvement.Educational Technology, 48(4), 27-36.

If you paraphrased the work your in-text citation could be something like:

(Chadwick & Valenzuela, 2008)

or

According to Chadwick and Valenzuela (2008) ....

If are directly quoting something out of the work, then your in-text citation would also include the page number (or paragraph number) of the quotation and would look  something like:

(Chadwick & Valenzuela, 2008, p. 29)

How do I cite an article or chapter from an edited work using the APA format?

In your References follow this format.

Author(s) of article or chapter. (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. In name of editors (Ed.), Title of work (pp. page numbers). City of publication: Publisher.

Example

Lockwood, A. (2000). Hospitality. In J. Jafari (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Tourism (pp. 284-286). New York: Routledge.

If you paraphrased the work your in-text citation could be something like:

(Lockwood, 2000)

or

Lockwood (2000) states that ....

If are directly quoting something out of the work, then your in-text citation would also include the page number (or paragraph number) of the quotation and would look  something like:

(Lockwood, 2000, p. 286)

How do I cite a quotation within a quotation using the APA format?

Use single quotation marks within double quotation marks to indicate material quoted in a source text (quotation within a quotation). Cite the source in which you found the information - not the original work.

e.g.; The Guardian reported that the Farmers Helping Farmers "fundraiser was the second major project for Kristen Roe and the fundraising campaign called Women Making Waves that has grown up around her swims across the Northumberland Strait.  Roe States 'I think this is another tidal wave in the ripple effect of our campaign'" (Armstrong, 2008, p. A2).

How do I cite a personal communication?

Personal Communications - letters, memos, lectures, email, interviews, and telephone conversations

Cite personal communications in text only. Provide initials and surname, and provide as exact a date as possible. Do not include personal communications in your References list.

  In text:

A. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, January 4, 2009).

or (A. Smith, personal communication, January 4, 2009).  

How do I cite a book using the APA format?

Typically you follow this format -

Author Lastname, Initials. (Date). Title of book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.

You'll notice that the citation is double spaced, the title is in italics and only the first letter of the title is capitalized (unless it is a proper name).

Example with two authors:

Day, C. P. & Carlos, B. R. (2006). Knife skills for chefs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Can faculty and students copy from the Internet?

Yes educational institutions, teachers, and students may save, download, and share publicly available Internet materials, as well as use that material in the classroom and communicate it to students if they cite their source. Students and educators are required to cite the source of any Internet materials they use. 

“Publicly available” materials are those posted on-line by content creators and copyright owners without any technological protection measures, such as a password, encryption system, or similar  technology intended to limit access or distribution, and without a clearly visible notice prohibiting educational use.  

Routine classroom uses may be made of publicly available Internet materials, such as incorporating on-line text or images into homework assignments, performing music or plays on-line for  peers, exchanging materials with teachers or peers, or reposting a work on a restricted-access course Web site.

Can faculty copy for instruction?

Faculty can copy (or take any other necessary action) in order to display a work protected by copyright. This permits the use of  whiteboards and similar tools, overhead projection using a device such as an LCD screen, overhead, opaque, or slide projector, provided  the work is used for the purpose of education and training and is not already commercially available in a medium that is appropriate for  this purpose.

Can faculty copy for tests and examinations?

Faculty in Canada may copy, translate, communicate electronically, show, or play any copyright-protected work for a test or examination, provided the work is not already commercially available in an appropriate medium for the purpose of a test or examination.

Can faculty provide students handouts in class?

Yes, a single copy of a short excerpt from a copyright protected work may be provided or communicated to each student enrolled in a class or course:

  • as a class handout
  • as a posting to SAM
  • as part of a course pack.

Remember that both faculty and students are required to cite the source of any materials they handout or use in class.

Can I show a feature film, documentary or Youtube clip in class?

The Copyright Act permits showing an audiovisual work such as a DVD or video as long as the work is not an infringing copy or the person responsible for the showing has no reasonable grounds to believe it is an infringing copy. 

Faculty can show audiovisual works in their classroom for educational purposes that is

  • purchased or rented from a retail store
  • borrowed from the library
  • a copy borrowed from a friend 
  • a YouTube video

Showing movies from subscription services (ie Netflix) in the classroom is governed by the terms of the agreement between the subscriber and the subscription service. If the agreement provides that use is limited to “personal” or “household” use, for example, then classroom use is not permitted under the agreement.

Faculty cannot copy an audiovisual work at home and then show it in the classroom. This would be considered an infringing copy.  

How do I link to articles / streaming videos in SAM?

Anytime that you find an article from one of the Ebsco databases that you wish to link to, click on the "Permalink" link on the right side of the full article view (where you see other option links like print, email, save etc.) and copy and paste the URL into SAM. Students can access this article from anywhere. Don't use the URL in the browser's address box on top.

For articles from other restricted Holland College Library databases, you may need to copy the following base URL to the beginning of the URL (please not that it is https not http). First look for a share or bookmark link that should have this base URL included. If not, then add it to the beginning. Please check with library staff if you have any questions.

https://rpa.hollandcollege.com:2048/login?url=

Please note that your are NOT allowed to upload the PDF files of the articles into SAM. You can only add links to the articles.

Films on Demand videos

There is an easy-to-use Films on Demand widget in SAM. When adding content, click on the Create a File link just below the Video or Audio link and in the html editor page that appears, click on the far-left icon on the top called "Insert Stuff." Click on the Films on Demand link on the bottom of this selection list and search for a video in the search box. Once you enter a search you can filter the results by a number of categories including Subject and Grade Level. Once you have found a video, click on the Embed Small link to the right of the video. Click Insert, give it a title, then click Publish. You can add text through the Edit HTML link.

YouTube videos

There is also a YouTube widget in SAM. Use it the same way as the Films on Demand widget above except choosing the YouTube link in the "Insert Stuff" list. Just click on the title of the video then click the Next button on the bottom and finally click Insert then enter a title and click Publish. You should add the Author and Publication date in the "Add a description" section to give proper credit. You can click on the YouTube link on the bottom-right of the inserted video to open it up in YouTube to get this infornation. PLEASE READ the paragraph below: 

Remember that you are responsible for ensuring that any YouTube content that you include in SAM does not violate copyright and that you use it in the terms set out in the YouTube Terms of Service. Please also view the library's Copyright FAQ
 

National Film Board of Canada videos 

There is no National Film Board of Canada widget in SAM so when adding new content, select  "Video or Audio" and insert an Embed Code. You will need to search the NFB website using the following URL: https://rpa.hollandcollege.com:2048/login?url=https://www.nfb.ca/ 

It is important that you use the link above to access the NFB website because it will include an authentication string in the embed code that will allow users to watch subscription NFB videos (called CAMPUS videos) in SAM.

Once you select a video click on the "</>" link below the video and copy and paste the whole code into the SAM new content Embed Code box. Select the whole code by putting your mouse in the box and pressing ctrl-a to select all and ctrl-c to copy it, and ctrl-v to paste it into the box. You may see a message box that the site has been blocked by SAM but you can click to always unblock it.

Please don't hesitate to check with library staff if you have any questions. Please also view the library's Copyright FAQ

How do I request a book or article from another library outside of Holland College?

If you haven't tried searching Holland College's library catalogue or the article databases, you may want to start there first.

This service is available to current students, staff and faculty of Holland College. It supplements the resources of the Holland College Library Services by making available books and articles located at other libraries.  

All requests are processed through the Charlottetown Centre Library.  Individuals may submit  requests in person, in a form on our website, or directly from EBSCO citations in our online databases.

Books are normally available within 1 to 3 weeks, but may take longer depending on where the request was sent and whether or not the item is available at the time of the request.  Article delivery can take 2 days to a week. Therefore, requesters should be aware of the time factor and do their research in advance of deadlines.

At the present time there is no charge for Interlibrary Book Loans or Article Delivery at Holland College.   However, requesters are responsible for any costs incurred due to loss, damage, and overdue fines as well as additional charges for rush orders.

For Staff: This service does not replace program-related collection development. Materials borrowed via this service must be related to curriculum, professional development, or staff research.  Requests of a personal nature should be directed to the Confederation Centre Public Library, UPEI, or other libraries as appropriate.

How do I cite a personal communication like an interview or an email?

Personal Communications - letters, memos, lectures, email, interviews, and telephone conversations

Cite personal communications in text only. Provide initials and surname, and provide as exact a date as possible. Do not include personal communications in your References list.

  In text:

A. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, July 4, 2018).

or (A. Smith, personal communication, July 4, 2018).  

What is Plagiarism?

It's the act of passing off someone else's work as your own, as when you do a quick cut and paste from a web site into your own document, and neglect to give attribution to your sources. Plain and simple, it's a form of theft or cheating, and according to our Code of Conduct for Learners, plagiarism is an offence for which a student can be disciplined or exited from his or her program.

But it doesn't have to happen. To avoid charges of plagiarism, simply learn to document ("cite") your sources. Your learning manager may prescribe a particular style guide that sets out the "how-to" rules, or you may choose one that suits you and your subject area. Most of the programs at Holland College use the APA style and citation guide.

Library staff give classroom and lab sessions on research and citing sources and are always available for any questions that you may have with citing your sources or doing research.

What services are available for Holland College alumni?

Did you know that you can still use Holland College Library Services after you graduate? Here's what we offer...

Circulation Services

In order to borrow from our collections, you will need to register at one of our resource centres and present some valid identification. Once registered, you will receive a new borrower card with a 14-digit barcode number. You can use this barcode number to make requests in our online catalogue or to request online renewals of items you have borrowed. You may borrow up to six items at a time from us, and you may renew your loans up to five times, provided there are no pending requests for the items. If a currently enrolled student or staff member requests materials signed out to you, however, we reserve the right to recall those items before their due date. You should also know that, although we do not charge late fees for overdue items, you will be charged for replacement of any materials that are lost or damaged. Holland College may also decline to lend materials to users who are perpetually in arrears or who do not respect the terms of loan.

Internet access and online databases

Holland College alumni are welcome to use the library public computers for Internet access as well as for searching our subscription research databases. Please check with library staff about logging you in to one of the computers in the library. Because of our license agreements, only currently enrolled Holland College students and staff can access the subscription databases from off-campus or at home.

What services are available for external borrowers (Island Community)?

Holland College is pleased to offer circulation services (excluding interlibrary loan) to members of the Island community who are not enrolled students or staff.

In order to borrow from our collections, you will need to register at one of our libraries and present some valid identification. Once registered, you will receive a borrower card with a 14-digit barcode number. You can use this barcode number to make requests and renew items in our online catalogue.

You may borrow up to six items at a time from us, and you may renew your loans up to five times, provided there are no pending requests for the items. If a student or staff member requests materials signed out to you, however, we reserve the right to recall those items before their due date. You should also know that, although we do not charge late fees for overdue items, you will be charged for replacement of any materials that are lost or damaged. Holland College may also decline to lend materials to users who are perpetually in arrears or who do not respect the terms of loan.

The library sends out overdue and hold pickup notices by email. Please include an email address when you register in order to receive library notices.  You may have to configure your email account to prevent library notices from going to the Spam folder.

Internet access and online databases

Members of the Island community are welcome to use the library public computers for Internet access as well as for searching our subscription research databases. Please check with library staff about logging you in to one of the computers in the library. Because of our license agreements, only currently enrolled Holland College students and staff can access the subscription databases from off-campus or at home.

How do I request a book or article from another library outside of Holland College?

If you haven't tried searching Holland College's library catalogue or the article databases, you may want to start there first.

This service is available to current students, staff and faculty of Holland College. It supplements the resources of the Holland College Library Services by making available books and articles located at other libraries.  

All requests are processed through the Charlottetown Centre Library.  Individuals may submit requests by emailing library@hollandcollege.com with the full information including author, title of article, year of publication and the journal name and volume, issue and page numbers of the article. For books, please include the ISBN if possible. Interlibrary Loan requests can also be made directly from our Ebsco Discovery Search results if a Request an Interlibrary Loan link appears in the record of the article that you are interested in.

Books are normally available within 1 to 3 weeks, but may take longer depending on where the request was sent and whether or not the item is available at the time of the request.  Article delivery can take 2 days to a week. Therefore, requesters should be aware of the time factor and do their research in advance of deadlines.

At the present time there is no charge for Interlibrary Book Loans or Article Delivery at Holland College.   However, requesters are responsible for any costs incurred due to loss, damage, and overdue fines as well as additional charges for rush orders.

For Staff: This service does not replace program-related collection development. Materials borrowed via this service must be related to curriculum, professional development, or staff research.  Requests of a personal nature should be directed to the Confederation Centre Public Library, UPEI, or other libraries as appropriate.

What online resources are available?

If material you need is available in the Library's online collections, you won't need  to request delivery of a print copy from the Library. Here's how you can find online versions of material you need: 

  • check the Library Catalogue - items that are available online, such as online videos, will provide weblinks to the databases with the online version
  • to look for just e-books there are several ways to do this:
    • Click on any of the following links:
    1. Ebsco eBook Collection (over 50,000 eBooks)
    2. Open Textbook Library
    3. OpenEd BCcampus Open Textbooks
    • On the main Library webpage under the Everything tab enter your search terms; then, under limits in the left navigation bar, select the source type you want (ie ebooks); or,
  • Go to our A-Z list of all databases. Click on description to decide and then search the database.
    • Databases indicate if an article is available online - look for an HTML or PDF link
        
  • E-Resources link provides access to specific online journals. You can search for and go directly to a specific online journal to search or browse articles in that journal and follow the links to fulltext.  Remember though that you can search for articles in many online journals at the same time using a database
  • Online courses: Your instructor may put weblinks to articles, reserve readings, and other online resources right inside your online course website - these will take you directly to the fulltext of the article online without having to go into a database yourself and to look for it.

The Holland College Libraries'  Inter-Library loans department allow students, faculty and staff of the university to request materials from other institutions. If you require the loan or photocopying of materials from other Canadian libraries, please click here.

How can distance learners borrow resources?

Borrowing resources

You can use your library barcode to login to the Holland College Library's online catalogue at  http://library.hollandc.pe.ca/ . Here you can request books, and renew books that you have signed out. You may borrow up to six items at a time from us, and you may renew your loans up to five times, provided there are no pending requests for the items.

Out-of-province learners

We will ship requested items to out-of-province borrowers via Canada Post, enclosing a postage-free return label.  Please email library staff at library@hollandcollege.com to request material and include your full mailing address and distance education program you are enrolled in as well as detailed information about the book(s) including author, title, year and call number. The loan period for out-of-province distance learners is longer than normal (usually about one month), in order to compensate for shipment times. Although we do not charge late fees for overdue items, you will be charged for replacement of any materials that are lost or damaged.

In-province learners

If you are studying in-province, we will ship items to your nearest Library branch. When you request a book and you are studying in-province, select the library where you will pick up the book.  You will be notified by email when it is ready for pickup.

If you have any trouble requesting material from the online catalogue, please contact Holland College Library Services at library@hollandcollege.com

I am a distance student - what services are available?

Registering for Distance Services

Distance library services are available to current Holland College students, faculty and staff working off-campus for extended periods of time.

When you register at Holland College as an off-campus learner, please contact library services to assign you a library barcode. Please email library@hollandcollege.com and include your contact information, mailing address, and the program you are enrolled in.

Borrowing library books

Online resources

Getting Help (Q&A)

Have a question that needs an answer? Send it along to one of our trained library staff. You can call us at 902-566-9558 or any of the numbers listed on our Contacts page, or  email library@hollandcollege.com

How do I write citations and bibliographies in APA Style (6th Edition)?

NEW! Check out these APA formating videos

How to Format Your Paper in APA Style

Referencing Sources in APA Style: A Basic Introduction,

How to Reference Journal Articles 

How to Reference Multiple Authors in APA.

How to Reference a Citation Within a Citation in APA Style

How to Reference Newspaper Newsletter and Magazine Articles

How to Reference eBooks

How to Reference Books

How to Reference Websites

How to Reference Canadian Government Documents 

This content was created by Crystal Rose, Public Services Librarian, Memorial University Libraries, in partnership with the university's department of Distance Education, Learning
& Teaching Support.

Here are some other helpful YouTube videos: